Monday, May 2, 2011
Smoking in adolescents with problems
Peer pressure has a significant influence on adolescent cigarette smoking. Many organizations claim that anti-snuff habit teens start smoking because of pressure, and cultural influence represented by friends. However, one study found that direct pressure to smoke cigarettes did not play an important role in adolescent smokers. In this study, teens also low levels of direct regulatory pressure and smoke cigarettes. A similar study showed that individuals play a more active role in smoking initiation has already been acknowledged and that social processes other than peer pressure need to be taken into account. Results of another study revealed that peer pressure was significantly associated with smoking behavior in all age groups and gender, but that intrapersonal factors were significantly more important for the behavior of smokers aged 12 to 13 years old , girls, children of the same age. In the age group 14-15 years of age, a variable of peer pressure emerged as a more important indicator of girls than boys smoking. It is debated whether peer pressure or self-selection is a major cause of adolescent smokers. It is arguable that the reverse peer pressure is true, when most of his peers do not smoke and ostracize those who do. Nicotine is an addictive stimulant and is one of the main factors leading to continued use of snuff. Although the percentage of nicotine inhaled smoke snuff is very small (most of the substance is destroyed by heat) is still sufficient to cause physical and / or psychological dependence. Before habituation, the snuff teen smoking often focus on the reinforcing properties of smoking more than the health risks associated. Because diseases caused by smoking area relatively late in life, teenagers do not see their actions as harmful. As a result, do not serve to deter smoking, given the instant gratification offered by the snuff. The depressing effect of smoking calms the nerves and sometimes allows a higher concentration to reduce anxiety. This is another attractive and appealing reason for teenagers to smoke. Nicotine appears to be capable of giving a stimulant and a depressant effect, and it is likely that the effect at any given moment is determined by the user's mood, environment and circumstances of use. Studies have suggested that low doses has a depressant effect, while higher doses have a stimulating effect. However, it is impossible to differentiate a drug effect produced by nicotine, and the relief of nicotine withdrawal.
Somatic and psychological effects of nicotine
The worrying statistics according to studies by Henningfield and Benowitz, overall nicotine is more addictive than marajuana, caffeine, ethanol, cocaine and heroin when considering both somatic and psychological dependence. However, due to the effects of withdrawal stronger ethanol, cocaine and heroin, nicotine may have a lower potential for somatic dependence of these substances. A study by Perrine concludes that nicotine's potential for psychological dependency exceeds all other drugs studied - including ethanol, a highly addictive physically with severe withdrawal symptoms that can be fatal. Recent evidence has shown that smoking snuff increases the release of dopamine in the brain, specifically in the mesolimbic pathway, the same neuro-reward circuit activated by drugs of abuse such as heroin and cocaine. This suggests that nicotine use has a pleasurable effect that triggers positive reinforcement that is what many teenagers do not have their lives today.